Peru has a large number of heritages of Andean civilizations and the Spanish colonial period country-wide, and the tourism industry based on those rich cultural and natural resources is one of the precious means to acquire foreign currencies. On the other hand, in order to utilize nationally-designated cultural heritages for tourism purpose, the following matters are required: 1) Approval of a utilization and management plan from the Ministry of Culture (MINCU), 2) Conservation of the nationally-designated cultural heritage(s) in coordination with MINCETUR, 3) Maintenance and utilization of cultural heritage through making arrangements with the regional government where the heritage locates. However, some tourism regions have been developed without proper consideration of cultural heritage conservation and landscape and attracted a huge number of tourists, which exceeds the acceptance capacity; this raises the concern on heritage conservation and landscape preservation. Based on the review of this kind of precedent, it is urgent to balance development based on regional governmental plan and conservation and sustainable utilization of cultural heritage and natural landscape in Peru.
Amazonas region, located in northern Peru, is one of the poorest regions but aiming tourism development utilizing various tourism resources such as heritages and nature as a means of poverty reduction. Upper Utcubamba Valley (UUV), the southern part of the region, has a great number of cultural landmarks and diverse traditional lifestyles and landscapes, including Kuelup ruins. Improvement of accessibility to the Kuelup ruins because of the completion of a ropeway (tele cabin) in March 2017 brought about a rapid increase in the number of tourists. While MINCU is proceeding processes to inscribe the landscape of UUV on the World Heritage List in the interest of conservation, the heritage site faces several issues, such as destruction, grave robbery, illegal dwelling, and land clearing for cultivation. As local tourism-related companies are less developed, tourism products and services are mal-provided. Hence, it is required to develop a sustainable tourism development model which manages both conservation and utilization of cultural and natural heritage and tourism business development so that UUV community people can be benefited.
Based on the above-mentioned background, JICA implemented “Support to Formulate the Plan on Inscription of Kuelap on the World Heritage List” from August 2013 to March 2014. Through the 2014 study, it was confirmed that tourism development using the Ecomuseum concept can be effective for balancing both cultural and natural heritage conservation and tourism development.
Considering above all, the Peruvian government requested support to the Japanese government regarding the establishment of a tourism development model using the Ecomuseum concept in UUV in July 2016, and JICA conducted detailed planning studies in July and November of 2017. Both sides repeatedly discussed the scope of a technical cooperation project and reached an agreement on the implementation of the project.
The expected outputs of the project include the following:
Output 1 Pilot tourism zones as cultural landscape based on “Ecomuseum concept” are developed by utilizing cultural and natural resources.
Output 2 A necessary set of rules, regulations, and implementation mechanism for creation, maintenance/operation, and maximum usage of the cultural landscape are designed and implemented.
Output 3 The local capacity for managing cultural landscapes and tourism is improved.
Output 4 The business in relation to cultural and natural tourism resources is accelerated.
Health status in Africa has improved over the years. The life expectancy has been extended from 47 in 2005 to 61 in 2016, and the maternal mortality ratio and under-five mortality rates have been improved from 910/100,000 live births (LB) and 171/1,000 LB in 2005 to 542/100,000 LB and 76.5/1,000 LB in 2016 respectively (WHO). However, the situation is still behind compared with the other regions.
The Government of Japan launched the “Africa Health and Wellbeing Initiative” at the 7th TICAD (Tokyo International Conference on African Development) in August 2019. This initiative aims to promote self-sustaining industries in the fields of health and medical services and long-term care in Africa. To realize this purpose, it seeks to develop a virtuous cycle of creating and fostering private-sector business that could improve health in Africa through the efforts of the public sector and the invigoration of the private sector that can support the public sector.
Under this Initiative, JICA has commissioned a team of consultants to conduct a study on the roles of the private sector in improving health in six African countries, namely Kenya, Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.