Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the successor of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), was adopted at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit in September 2015 as the development goals of the international society.
After the adoption of SDGs in September 2015 at the UN, the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has soundly proceeded with preparations for SDGs, such as the establishment of the Secretariat for SDGs and working for a Presidential Decree on SDGs. The policy of GOI on SDGs and promoting structure for the goal was to be confirmed by the Presidential Decree.
Japan International Development Agency (JICA) started this study to understand the overall picture of efforts toward SDGs in Indonesia and seek the possibility of future cooperation for pursuing a national development plan in keeping with efforts on SDGs in Indonesia. The study team also provided technical support for developing national indicators and constructing structure for monitoring and evaluation of relevant public institutions to accomplish goals and indicators.
Sixty years have passed since the first participants of technical training programs in Japan were dispatched from Malaysia in 1956, and Malaysia’s socio-economic development has risen to more than $10,000 per capita in 2011. Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA) has continuously supported Malaysia in accordance with the country’s growth, and a number of projects have contributed to Malaysia in various forms, such as contribution to policies and institutions, infrastructure development, human resource development, etc.
Under these circumstances, this survey tried to identify roles and achievements that ODA projects have played in social and economic development in Malaysia, consolidation, and development of the economic relationship between Malaysia and Japan, and enhancement of the partnership between the two countries. The survey identified these roles and achievements by reviewing the transition of development in Malaysia and organizing past ODA projects and ideas behind them in terms of sectors and chronology. Public relation materials such as brochure and video were developed based on the study results and presented in a seminar in Malaysia.
In addition, the study aimed to obtain insights and contribute to JICA’s discussion about its future aid policy for Malaysia, a country which is about to join a member of developed countries.
The G7 Ise Shima Summit in 2016 was the first summit to be held after the conclusion of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015 and the establishment of new global frameworks for sustainable development and climate change. Within this context, the third comprehensive G7 Ise Shima Progress Report, succeeding Mushoka and Lough Erne, was to be produced by the Japanese Government as the chair of the Summit. The report assessed the progress made since Lough Erne and possibly credit some of the MDGs for their achievements. It also discussed the role that the G7 will play to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the post-2020 climate change goals in the dynamic landscape of global development.
In October 2015, a total of 51 commitments and methodologies were agreed on at the G7 Accountability Working Group (AWG) meeting held in Berlin, Germany. Within this context, the study team conducted the preliminary assessment to produce 51 Record Formats (RFs) and 35 Self-Reporting Questionnaires (SRQs). The SRQs were distributed to G7 governments, and their responses were assessed and consolidated to the RFs in order to finalize the progress report. The Ise Shima Progress Report was prepared by the IDCJ team and submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. The information newly obtained by SRQs and summarized in RFs was maximally utilized to finalize the Progress Report.
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Myanmar) has been rapidly advancing democratization, national reconciliation, economic reforms, and poverty reduction since the 2011 transition to the civilian rule. Civil service reform has been one of the main concerns under the current administration to improve the quality of service deliveries.
The Union Civil Service Board (UCSB) was established in 2010 after the UCSB Law (the State Peace and Development Council Law No.24/2010) was enacted by the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) in accordance with section 443 of the Constitution of Myanmar. The UCSB takes responsibility for conducting the process of the recruitments and selections for gazetted officials to be appointed at the entry point of public servants; undertaking training and educational programs aimed at capacity enhancement of civil service personnel; administering the existing rules and regulations relating to the civil service personnel; and providing advisory and consultancy service to other public organizations in matters relating to civil service affairs. (UCSB, 2013). The Central Institutes of Civil Service (CICS) in Lower Myanmar and Upper Myanmar under the UCSB have played a central role in organizing induction training courses for all levels of service personnel and providing arrangements for middle and senior-level officials to participate in training programs, conferences, workshops, and seminars (Ibid). The Civil Service Law 2013 was enacted to define the structure of civil service and the regulations of civil servants, including recruitment, salary, merit-based promotion, and personnel evaluation. However, it is believed there is room to improve the civil service system and civil servant capacity development to meet emerging demands in the process of advancing democratization.
Since 2016, the new administration has undertaken civil service reform to improve efficiency, transparency, and accountability in civil service to respond to people’s needs and rapid socio-economic transformation. In 2017, for instance, the UCSB established the Civil Service Academy (CSA) that aims to provide basic training for cadets and post-graduate diploma management courses for civil servants. In addition, the UCSB launched the Civil Service Reform Strategic Action Plan (CSRSAP) to enhance the merit-based system, accountability, fairness, and efficiency in civil service.
In this context, this study collected and analyzed data and information to grasp the outline of Myanmar’s civil servant system as well as the current situation and challenges in civil service training so that JICA can examine the options of possible cooperation and make its concrete proposal for the UCSB.